Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized, or informal small producers or other worksites
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex/opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Textiles supply chains are notoriously complex, characterized by extensive outsourcing, and can generally take a variety of forms.26Business Process Analysis for Sustainability and Circularity in Textile Value Chains. UNECE, May 2022, pp. 71, 79, 83-84, unece.org/sites/default/files/2022-05/E320_BPA-SVC-textile.pdf. Textile and garment companies may be horizontally or vertically integrated. Vertically integrated firms may perform some or all production processes, while horizontally integrated firms focus on the same type of production process across many different production units. Some companies are both vertically and horizontally integrated.27Theuws, Martje, and Pauline Overeem. Flawed Fabrics. The abuse of girls and women workers in the South Indian textile industry. SOMO and ICN, October 2014, p. 15, www.indianet.nl/pdf/FlawedFabrics.pdf.
Embellished textiles can be made from a variety of materials including cotton and synthetic fabrics which are then decorated with embroidery, sequins, or other ornamentation. Garment and textile manufacturing factories, also called cut-make-trim (CMT) factories, may bleach and dye fabrics and then manufacture the garments/textiles through cutting, stitching, and other processes.28Follow the Thread. The Need for Supply Chain Transparency in the Garment and Footwear Industry. Human Rights Watch, 20 April 2017, p. 1, https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/wrdtransparency0417_brochure_web_spreads_3.pdf. Value-added processing such as embellishment or embroidery may take place at the CMT factories, as well, but it is most often outsourced to small, informal workshops or home-based workshops. 29Kara, Siddharth. Tainted Garments. The Exploitation of Women and Girls in India’s Home-Based Garment Sector. Blum Center for developing Economies University of California, Berkely, January 2019, p. 51, blumcenter.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Tainted-Garments-1.pdf. Embellishment includes many different processes, such as adding adornments with yarn and mesh. Sometimes, these adornments include the addition of accessories such as beads and sequins made of glass, plastic, or other natural resources.30Elnashar, Elsayed Ahmed. Design and Production of Beads Woven Fabric in Fashion Trends for Garments of Egyptian Origin. Journal of Textile Science & Fashion Technology, 2019, pp. 2-3, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337716575_Design_and_Production_of_Beads_Woven_Fabric_in_Fashion_Trends_for_Garments_of_Egyptian_Origin. The finished garments and textiles are then sent back to the factory for labeling and packing and are sold as clothing and household textiles to mostly European and American markets. From there, brands sell them in retail.31Follow the Thread. The Need for Supply Chain Transparency in the Garment and Footwear Industry. Human Rights Watch, 20 April 2017, p. 1, https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/wrdtransparency0417_brochure_web_spreads_3.pdf.
Garment/Textile Manufacturing (Cut-make-trim)
Value-added Processing & Embellishment (in particular subcontracted work)
Embellished textiles are produced with thread/yarn.
Embellished textiles are produced with beads, sequins and other accessories made of plastic or glass.
Embellished textiles are used in the production of garments and accessories.
Embellished Textiles are used in the production of household items such as linens, curtains, and carpets.