Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized, or informal small producers or other worksites
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex/opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Following the ginning stage of cotton production, cotton lint is transferred to thread production and spinning mills.29Seeds of Oppression, ARISA and Centre for Labour Research and Action (CLRA), July 2021, arisa.nl/wp-content/uploads/SeedsOfOppression.pdf. Spinning transforms the lint fibers into thread and yarn.30Child Labour in Cotton – A briefing, International Labour Organization, 2016, www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=29655. This process involves the cleaning, blending, and twisting together of fibers, followed by the coiling of yarn.31Child Labour in Cotton – A briefing, International Labour Organization, 2016, www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=29655. Alternatively, thread and yarn can be spun from synthetic and artificial fibers.32Textile Value Chain, Techtera, www.techtera.org/en/techtera/the-textile-sector/textile-value-chain. The yarn may then be processed further via milling and texturization,33Textile Value Chain, Techtera, www.techtera.org/en/techtera/the-textile-sector/textile-value-chain. which is the process of altering the yarn by introducing loops, crimps or coils.34Yarn Texturing || Types || Methods, Textile Sphere, May 2020, www.textilesphere.com/2020/05/yarn-texturing.html#:~:text=Texturizing%20can%20be%20termed%20as,is%20used%20as%20feed%20yarn.
The cotton lint might go through a cotton fiber trading company before it reaches the spinning mills. Following production, yarn agents sell the thread and yarn on to weaving/knitting mills, where the yarn is transformed into fabrics.35Seeds of Oppression, ARISA and Centre for Labour Research and Action (CLRA), July 2021, arisa.nl/wp-content/uploads/SeedsOfOppression.pdf. The fabrics are then finished through dying, bleaching, and printing, which can take place at other factories.36Overeem, P., Theuws, M., Heyl, D. ‘Spinning around workers rights’, ARISA and SOMO, May 2021, arisa.nl/wp-content/uploads/SpinningAroundWorkersRights.pdf. The final stage in the production chain is the making of garments at garment factories.37Overeem, P., Theuws, M., Heyl, D. ‘Spinning around workers rights’, ARISA and SOMO, May 2021, arisa.nl/wp-content/uploads/SpinningAroundWorkersRights.pdf. All these manufacturing stages are associated with risks of child and forced labor.38Forced and Child Labour in The Cotton Industry, World Vision Action, 2012, www.worldvision.com.au/docs/default-source/buy-ethical-fact-sheets/forced-and-child-labour-in-the-cotton-industry-fact-sheet.pdf?sfvrsn=2#:~:text=Children%20as%20young%20as%20five,the%20expense%20of%20their%20education9.
Cotton fibre trading
Thread production and spinning
Thread/yarn manufacturing into textiles
Cottonseed (hybrid) is an upstream good of thread/yarn production that is associated with child and forced labor.
Cotton is an upstream good of thread/yarn production because the cotton lint is used to form thread/yarn. Cotton is associated with child and forced labor at the farming and ginning levels.