Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized, or informal small producers or other worksites
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex/opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Garment supply chains are complex, fragmented, and opaque55Accelerating action for a sustainable and circular garment and footwear industry: which role for transparency and traceability of value chains? UNECE, 2020, unece.org/DAM/trade/Publications/ECE_TRADE_449-AcceleratingTanspRraceabilityTextile.pdf. and production within them can span several countries across almost every continent.56Richero, Raul and Simon Ferrigno. A Background Analysis on Transparency and Traceability in the Garment Value Chain. DAI Europe, 2016, international-partnerships.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2020-07/european_commission_study_on_background_analysis_on_transparency_and_traceability_in_the_garment_value_chain.pdf. Globally, the sector employs more than 60 million workers, with most of them located in least developed and developing countries in the upstream segment of the supply chain.57Accelerating action for a sustainable and circular garment and footwear industry: which role for transparency and traceability of value chains? UNECE, 2020, unece.org/DAM/trade/Publications/ECE_TRADE_449-AcceleratingTanspRraceabilityTextile.pdf. Garment production occurs across many tiers and production steps; a fully sleeved jacket may involve 120 operations between cutting and packing alone.58Richero, Raul and Simon Ferrigno. A Background Analysis on Transparency and Traceability in the Garment Value Chain. DAI Europe, 2016, international-partnerships.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2020-07/european_commission_study_on_background_analysis_on_transparency_and_traceability_in_the_garment_value_chain.pdf.
Garments are typically made from natural or synthetic fabrics. They can also be made from blends, like cotton or polyester. This means that raw materials such as cotton, wool, and down, as well as polyester and other synthetic materials, serve as upstream inputs for the production of garments. Garment manufacturing begins with the bleaching, dyeing, and/or printing of woven or knit fabrics. Fabric is then cut, stitched, and transformed through value-added processes such as embellishment. Finally, finished products are labeled and packed.59Flawed Fabrics. The abuse of girls and women workers in the South Indian textile industry. SOMO and ICN, October 2014, www.indianet.nl/pdf/FlawedFabrics.pdf. All of these production steps and processes may be outsourced and subcontracted multiple times, often to informal or home-based worksites.60Sreedharan, Liva and Aarti Kapoor. Sitting on pins and needles: a rapid assessment of labour conditions in Vietnam’s garment sector. Anti-Slavery International, April 2019, www.antislavery.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Pins-and-Needles-Vietnam-supply-chains-report.pdf. Garments may then be sold in domestic markets or international markets or to brands for retail. Multinational corporations often employ third-party agents that source from their large network of factories for garment production for these brands.61Industry Profile. Textile and Apparel. Responsible Sourcing Tool, www.responsiblesourcingtool.org/visualizerisk.
Fabric Dyeing & Printing
Embellishment, including Subcontracted Work
Garments are produced with thread/yarn.
Garments are produced with textiles.
Garments are produced with embellished textiles.
Some garments are also produced with leather, the production of which has been reportedly associated with forced labor and child labor.
Garments are primarily associated with the Textile, Apparel & Luxury Goods sector.