Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized, or informal small producers or other worksites
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex/opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Tin ore (cassiterite) is mined in large and small-scale or artisanal mines (ASM). It is then acquired by collectors and traders that sell the ore to independent smelters and refiners.21 The EPRM Due Diligence Hub. European Partnership – Responsible Minerals, europeanpartnership-responsibleminerals.eu/cms/view/5a5784ac-d006-42db-8017-7e01c46c2c5a/eprm-due-diligence-hub. In Indonesia, ASM dominates the tin mining sector and there is only one large state-owned company that integrates the mining and smelting stages of production.22xxiv A Collective Approach to Achieving A Sustainable Indonesian Tin Sector – Legacy Report of The Tin Working Group (TWG). aidenvironment and IDH, April 2017 www.idhsustainabletrade.com/uploaded/2017/06/Aidenenvironment_TWG-Legacy-Report_final_Website.pdf.
After smelting, the refined tin is exported to component manufacturers, then to product manufacturers. Recycled products containing tin can be reintroduced into the production chain at the smelting/refining stage to produce new tin products.23The EPRM Due Diligence Hub. European Partnership – Responsible Minerals, europeanpartnership-responsibleminerals.eu/cms/view/5a5784ac-d006-42db-8017-7e01c46c2c5a/eprm-due-diligence-hub.
Upstream traceability beyond the smelting stage of the tin supply chain is challenging due to the small-scale nature of tin mining and the presence of collectors that often operate outside of the law.24The EPRM Due Diligence Hub. European Partnership – Responsible Minerals, europeanpartnership-responsibleminerals.eu/cms/view/5a5784ac-d006-42db-8017-7e01c46c2c5a/eprm-due-diligence-hub. The risk of child labor is only reported in the mining stage of production.25Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Mineral Supply Chains. OECD, www.duediligenceguidance.org/
Tin ore mining
Smelting & refining
End product manufacturing
Tin can be used in electronics such as phones. Tin is used for soldering materials in phones, connecting wires by melting on to electrical circuit boards and conducting electricity.
Tin can be used to coat glass surfaces and enable electrical conductivity.
Tin has a high polish and can be used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion, such as food cans.