Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex/opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized or informal small producers or other worksites
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities
Primary inputs, such as metals, plastics, and chemicals, come from the raw materials supply chain and enter the electronics supply chain at the manufacturing facility level. Workers assemble electrical components in manufacturing plants, which are then transported to wholesalers and retailers. The greatest risk of labor abuses exists at the level of low-skill assembly and manufacturing within production facilities. These risks include long working hours, injuries from repetitive motions, prolonged use of small-motor skills, exposure to dangerous chemicals and extreme temperatures, and the use of dangerous machinery.11 Industry Profile: Electronics and Electrical. Responsible Sourcing Tool, www.responsiblesourcingtool.org/visualizerisk.
Basic electronic components may also be used in the manufacturing of other electronic goods, such as cell phones and computers. The electronics supply chain is highly reciprocal, meaning that companies act as both customers and suppliers. Manufacturers may purchase already manufactured electrical components to produce more complex electronic goods.12 Industry Profile: Electronics and Electrical. Responsible Sourcing Tool, www.responsiblesourcingtool.org/visualizerisk.
Assembly and Manufacturing of Electronics
Wholesale and Retail
Some electronics are used in the manufacturing of more complex electrical components or electronics goods.
Electronics are sold to wholesalers and retailers as components by themselves and employed in the manufacturing of everyday electronic devices, such as computers and cell phones.