Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized, or informal small producers or other worksites
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex/opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production
The timber supply chain is complicated by the involvement of different harvesters, processors, and distributors.11Ramage, Michael H. et al. “The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016. doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.107. The supply chain starts with wood harvest. The logs are then moved from the forest to different processors depending on how they will be used. Different processors exist for logs meant for pulp and paper production, furniture manufacturing, and construction.12Kesari, Shikha. “Timber: Top 5 Uses of Timber | Economic Geography.” Geography Notes. www.geographynotes.com/timber/timber-top-5-uses-of-timber-economic-geography/5546.
The global trade in products originating from illegally-extracted timber is a multimillion-dollar industry.13“WWF Position Paper on Illegal Logging and Related Trade.” Worldwide Fund for Nature, 1 July 2009. wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?12950/WWF-Position-Paper-on-Illegal-Logging-and-Related-Trade. Illegal timber is harvested around the world as a result of weak government enforcement of regulations and corruption.14“Timber species: protecting threatened tree species from illegal logging and unsustainable trade.” Traffic. www.traffic.org/what-we-do/species/timber. Illegal timber is smuggled and mixed in with legal timber and sold on the international market.15Stained trade: How U.S. imports of exotic flooring from China risk driving the theft of indigenous land and deforestation in Papua New Guinea. Global Witness, 2017. www.globalwitness.org/en/campaigns/forests/total-systems-failure.
Cultivation, Logging and/or Harvesting
The primary use of timber is in the construction sector.
Timber is used in the production of furniture and other household goods.
Timber is also increasingly used for wood-based textile fiber.