Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized, or informal small producers or other worksites
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex, opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production.
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities.
Strawberry harvesting is usually done manually, as mechanical harvesters are slower and less cost-effective.11Fischer-Daly, Matthew and Anner, Mark. Strawberry Global Supply Chains in Mexico. Center for Global Workers’ Rights, 2021, www.solidaritycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Strawberry-Global-Supply-Chains-in-Mexico.March-2021.pdf If strawberries are sold for fresh consumption, they are harvested, cleaned, packed into containers, and placed in refrigerated trucks; these processes take place on the day of harvest and at the farm on which the strawberries were grown.12Fischer-Daly, Matthew and Anner, Mark. Strawberry Global Supply Chains in Mexico. Center for Global Workers’ Rights, 2021, www.solidaritycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Strawberry-Global-Supply-Chains-in-Mexico.March-2021.pdf. The fresh strawberries are then moved directly or via a producer cooperative or trader to retailers, wholesalers, and/or institutional buyers on a daily basis. The labor-intensive nature of hand cultivation and harvesting suggests that labor rights risks may be highest at the farm-level.
Strawberries intended for industrial purposes are treated in the same manner as fresh strawberries during harvest but are typically frozen after the cleaning process. The sales of frozen strawberries to processors may take place all year round.13Engelseth, Per et al. Modelling Fresh Strawberry Supply “From-Farm-to-Fork” as a Complex Adaptive Network, 2011, edepot.wur.nl/173998.
Cultivation and harvesting
Handling and packing
Wholesale, Retail (institutional buyers, processers)
Strawberries are sold fresh for personal consumption in the food and beverage sector.
Strawberries are a common ingredient in jams, juices and other beverages, and other processed foods.