Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized, or informal small producers or other worksites
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex, opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production.
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities.
The rice supply chain is highly complex and contains multiple levels of middlemen.19Food loss analysis: causes and solutions. Case study on the rice value chain in the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. FAO, 2018, www.fao.org/3/BU739EN/bu739en.pdf. Farmers and hired farm laborers cultivate and harvest paddy rice, which may be sold directly or indirectly through middlemen to rice processors. Transplanting and harvesting rice by hand, popular methods in Asia, are physically labor-intensive jobs.20Manual Transplanting. Rice Knowledge Bank. www.knowledgebank.irri.org/training/fact-sheets/crop-establishment/manual-transplanting. At processing units, rice is milled and packed. Heavy sacks of milled rice are then loaded onto vehicles that transport rice to customers, including wholesalers, retailers, or institutional buyers, with the potential involvement of distribution agents or traders in between.21Sharma, Vishal et al. “Supply chain management of rice in India: A rice processing company’s perspective.’ International Journal of Managing Value and Supply Chains, 2013, http://www.airccse.org/journal/mvsc/papers/4113ijmvsc03.pdf.
Seedling propogation and Rice cultivation
Processing (milling) and packing
Rice is one of the most widely consumed grains worldwide. It is consumed as a food item in the food and beverage sector and used as an ingredient in many different processed foods and drink, including alcoholic beverages. It is also an ingredient found in pet food.
Rice is also an ingredient found in cosmetics and personal care items.