Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Complex/opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized, or informal small producers or other worksites
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex, opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities
The cashew production chain can vary depending on whether the raw cashew nut is processed within the country where it is harvested or exported to be processed overseas. Most cashew nuts grown in Africa are exported as raw nuts to be processed and deshelled in other countries, particularly Vietnam and India.26Commodities at a Glance: Special issue on cashew nuts, UNCTAD, April 2021, https://unctad.org/publication/commodities-glance-special-issue-cashew-nuts.
The raw cashew nut production chain (foreign processing) is structured as follows: input suppliers; raw cashew nut producers; raw cashew nut exporters, potentially passing through traders and aggregators; importers; foreign processers/packagers; retailers; and consumers.27Decent Work, A Tough Nut to Crack? A Market System Analysis of The Cashew Processing Industry in Mozambique. International Labour Organisation, May 2018, www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_emp/documents/publication/wcms_647051.pdf.
The raw cashew nut production (domestic processing) chain consists of the following steps: input suppliers; raw cashew nut producers; traders and aggregators; domestic processors; processed cashew exporters; importers; foreign processers/packagers (who will sometimes salt/mix with other ingredients prior to packaging);28Cashing in on Cashews: How EU Supermarkets Drive Exploitation of Cashew Workers in India. Traidcraft, 2013, static1.squarespace.com/static/59242ebc03596e804886c7f4/t/59f3136f53450aa9d1475e08/1509102449357/Cashing+in+on+cashews.pdf. retailers; and consumers.29Decent Work, A Tough Nut to Crack? A Market System Analysis of The Cashew Processing Industry in Mozambique, International Labour Organisation, May 2018, www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_emp/documents/publication/wcms_647051.pdf.
Indian states ship processed cashews to EU countries, where EU processors package the cashews for EU consumption.30Cashing in on Cashews: How EU supermarkets drive exploitation of cashew workers in India. Traidcraft, 2013, static1.squarespace.com/static/59242ebc03596e804886c7f4/t/59f3136f53450aa9d1475e08/1509102449357/Cashing+in+on+cashews.pdf.
Risks of child labor are reported in both the harvesting of raw cashew nuts and the processing of the raw nuts to cashew kernels.31Cashews are Delicious, but Come with a Human Cost. Impact International, 2 November 2019, https://impactpolicies.org/news/69/Cashews-are-Delicious-but-Come-with-a-Human-Cost.
Raw Cashew Nut Producers
Raw Cashew Nut Processors to Cashew Kernals
Secondary Cashew Nut Packagers/Processors
Cashew kernels are the edible portion of the nut and the primary commercial product. They can be consumed raw or as roasted and salted nuts and in confectionary and bakery products. The fruit of the cashew tree that surrounds the kernel can be made into a juice with high vitamin C content and is also fermented to produce cashew wine.
The skin of the cashew can be recovered and used in the tanning of animal hides, due to its high tannins content, as part of the leather making process.