Table of Contents
Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by U.S. Government
Child Labor cited by U.S. Government
Risk of Forced Labor or Trafficking in Persons cited by other source
Risk of Child Labor cited by other source
Documented presence of migrant workers
Documented presence of other vulnerable workers
Documented presence or significant likelihood of third-party labor recruiters
Large numbers of dispersed, unorganized, or informal small producers or other worksites
Multiple points of aggregation, co-mingling, and/or transformation across supply chain
Complex/opaque supply chains and/or lack of vertical integration
High degree of flexibility in procurement practices of downstream entities
Scale or nature of risk is present across multiple tiers or nodes of supply chain (including in associated downstream or upstream goods)
Scale or nature of risk varies significantly based on geographic area of production
Scale or nature of risk is strongly associated with certain types of suppliers/entities
The brick value chain contains four main nodes: mining and storage, forming and cutting, firing and cooling, and storage and distribution. The mining and storage node of the supply chain begins with the blending of raw materials (typically crushed clay and shale) and includes the subsequent storing of the clay in a temperature-controlled facility prior to brick formation and further processing. Once the clay is stored, brick manufacturers use processing machines to form and cut the bricks into the desired weights and shapes. The formed and prepared bricks are then put into a kiln; this process typically takes between ten and 40 hours, depending on the type of kiln, level of insolation, type of fuel, and firing temperature. After the bricks have been fired at some specified temperature for a prescribed period of time, the process of cooling begins. This process takes between ten and 24 hours depending on the desired result. The cooled bricks are sorted based on internal quality, size, and color before being put into storage.18The Brick Industry Association. Technical Notes on Brick Construction, 2006. www.gobrick.com/media/file/9-manufacturing-of-brick.pdf. Bricks are often made-to-order for specific customers and are thus immediately distributed once the cooling process is completed. Bricks are typically transported by truck or ship depending on their destinations. Forced labor and child labor risk are highest at the forming and cutting and firing and cooling nodes of the supply chain.
Brick Formation, Drying, and Cutting
Firing and Cooling
Storage and Distribution
Sand is used to form silica, which can be made into bricks.
Bricks are typically used to construct structures, including commercial buildings, homes, and walls.